Variable expenses are costs that fluctuate directly to changes in production or sales. These costs increase as a company produces and sells more goods or services and decrease when production or sales decline. Variable expenses commonly include materials, labor, and direct overhead for producing goods or services.

By expressing the variable expense ratio as a percentage of sales revenue, businesses can assess the impact of variable costs on their profitability. Analyzing the variable expense ratio is helpful for budgeting, cost control, and decision-making. It can help businesses understand how efficient they are at managing their variable costs, make pricing decisions, and evaluate the impact of changes in sales volume on their bottom line.

What is the Variable Expense Ratio?

Variable expense ratio refers to the percentage of variable expenses to the company’s sales. The formula for the variable expense ratio is:

Variable Expense Ratio = (Total Variable Expenses / Total Sales) x 100

For example, if a company has total sales of $1,000 and total variable expenses of $200, its variable expense ratio would be 20%.

Generally, a lower variable expense ratio is better than a higher one because it indicates that the company can be more profitable with scaling. One way is to compare it to previous periods to see if the company is becoming more or less efficient. Another way is to compare it to other companies in the same industry to see how well the company performs relative to its peers.

When interpreting the variable expense ratio, it’s essential to remember that many factors can affect it. For example, a change in accounting methods can impact the numerator (total variable expenses) without affecting the denominator (total sales).

Fixed Cost vs Variable Cost

Variable costs in isolation won’t provide a holistic picture of your net profitability. You have to consider fixed expenses as well. Fixed costs are associated with a business’s essential operation and maintenance and do not fluctuate with changes in output or sales revenue like equipment or rent.

Fixed and variable costs impact a company’s net profitability in distinct ways. Fixed costs establish a financial baseline that a business must cover before achieving a profit. These expenses remain constant, irrespective of production or sales levels. Revenues earned beyond this fixed cost threshold directly contribute to net profitability. On the other hand, variable costs are tied to the cost of producing goods or services, increasing in tandem with production or sales volume. They directly influence the cost of goods sold (COGS) and profit margin. Effective management of variable costs can help maintain or improve profit margins, which, in turn, enhances net profitability. Striking the right balance between these cost categories and optimizing overall cost structures is pivotal for businesses seeking to maximize their net profitability.​

Variable Expense Ratio vs Contribution Margin

Contribution margin measures the amount of revenue left over after covering variable expenses, indicating a product or service’s profitability. It can be calculated in absolute terms or as a percentage of sales and provides insights into how much revenue is available to cover fixed costs and generate profit. The relationship with the Variable Expense ratio is:

Variable Expense Ratio = (Total Sales – Contribution Margin) / Total Sales

or 

Contribution Margin = Total Sales * (1 – Variable Expense Ratio)

The Contribution Margin provides us with information about the fixed costs, while the Variable Expense Ratio includes information about the variable costs. Both metrics are crucial for cost analysis and decision-making, with a lower variable expense ratio and a higher contribution margin indicating a more favorable financial position.

Advantages of Using Variable Expense Ratio

Various individuals and entities in the business world use the variable expense ratio. Business owners and managers utilize it to assess cost structures and make pricing decisions, while financial analysts rely on it for evaluating a company’s financial health. 

The Variable Expense Ratio enables analysis of the profitability and cost efficiency of the business. This allows the business to set the pricing of products and provide goals & profitability projections.

1. Profitability Assessment: The variable expense ratio helps assess the profitability of products or services by revealing the portion of each sales dollar that goes toward variable expenses. This insight is crucial for identifying which offerings are more profitable and require optimization.

2. Pricing Strategies: It aids in setting pricing strategies by determining the minimum selling price necessary to cover variable expenses. This information is invaluable for maintaining healthy profit margins and making informed pricing decisions.

3. Cost Control and Efficiency: The variable expense ratio is valuable for monitoring and controlling costs. By understanding the breakdown of varying expenses, businesses can identify areas for cost reduction and efficiency improvements, leading to higher profitability.

These advantages make the variable expense ratio a critical metric for financial decision-making and overall business performance.

Examples of Variable Expense Ratios


Let’s consider a hypothetical example in the restaurant industry to demonstrate how to calculate and analyze the variable expense ratio.

You are the owner of a family-owned restaurant, “Cafe Delight.” You want to understand your business’s cost structure and assess your menu items’ profitability. You decide to calculate and analyze the variable expense ratio for your restaurant.

Step 1: Data

– Total Monthly Sales: $30,000

– Cost of Food Ingredients (variable cost): $9,000

– Labor Costs for Kitchen Staff (variable cost): $5,000

– Monthly Rent (fixed cost): $4,000

– Utilities and Overhead (mixed costs): $2,000 (some variable, some fixed)

Step 2: Calculate Variable Expense Ratio

1. Calculate Total Variable Expenses:

   Total Variable Expenses = Cost of Food Ingredients + Labor Costs = $9,000 + $5,000 = $14,000

2. Calculate the Variable Expense Ratio:

   Variable Expense Ratio = (Total Variable Expenses / Total Monthly Sales) * 100

   Variable Expense Ratio = ($14,000 / $30,000) * 100 ≈ 46.67%

Step 3: Analysis

With a variable expense ratio of approximately 46.67%, this means that for every dollar in sales, Cafe Delight spends about 46.67 cents on variable expenses, primarily food, ingredients and labor.

Profitability Analysis: By understanding the variable expense ratio, you can assess the profitability of your menu items. For instance, a dish that generates $10,000 in sales but has high variable costs may not be as profitable as a lower-cost dish that produces $5,000 in sales.

Pricing Strategy: You can use the variable expense ratio to make pricing decisions. For example, if you introduce a new menu item with higher variable costs, you must set a higher selling price to maintain a desirable contribution margin.

Cost Control: Monitoring the variable expense ratio over time helps you identify trends and fluctuations. If the variable expense ratio starts increasing, it might indicate inefficiencies in your kitchen operations or a rise in ingredient costs, prompting you to control costs.

Break-Even Analysis: You can use the variable expense ratio to estimate your break-even point. Knowing that 46.67% of your sales go to variable expenses helps you determine the sales level required to cover all costs (fixed and variable).

This analysis helps you make informed decisions to optimize your restaurant’s profitability. You may choose to adjust your menu, control ingredient costs, or set appropriate pricing strategies to improve your financial performance while ensuring that your fixed expenses, like rent and overhead, are covered by your revenue.

Source: https://nanonets.com/blog/variable-expense-ratio/